cold kills twenty times more than heat …

Spain’s mad rush into renewals has cost them dearly. High unemployment, high energy prices, bankrupted energy companies, and some cold weather:

Paper Reviewed
Diaz, J., Carmona, R., Miron, I.J., Ortiz, C. and Linares, C. 2015. Comparison of the effects of extreme temperatures on daily mortality in Madrid (Spain), by age group: The need for a cold wave prevention plan. Environmental Research 143: 186-191.

In this extremely enlightening paper, Diaz et al. (2015) analyzed data on daily deaths due to natural causes in the city of Madrid (Spain) over the period 2001-2009, calculating the impact of both extreme hot and cold temperatures on mortality using Poisson regression models for specific age groups. And what did they thereby learn?

The five Spanish researchers report that “the mean intensity of the heat waves (0.8°C) was half that of the cold waves (1.7°C).” However, they found that the effect of cold on mortality was five times greater than that of heat. And if that sounds a bit extreme, they further note that the recent study of Gasparrini et al. (2015) showed, on a global basis, that cold-induced mortality is fully twenty times higher than that induced by heat.

This being the case, one would hope that any future global warming experienced by the Earth would be more strongly expressed by daily minimum temperatures than by daily maximum temperatures. And, fortunately, this is what has been found to have been the case to date, as has been demonstrated by the studies of Karl et al. (1984, 1991), Easterling et al. (1997), Donat et al. (2013) and Gasparrini et al. (2015), to name but a few.


Fortunately, Spain is now going through the pain of their mad rush into wind turbines and failed solar projects, so the turn around in energy might happen before the next little ice age.

Friday funny bonus – Green blob feeling the heat

The luck of the Irish? Irish advised to take out the winter woollies again

Ice Age Now

About Tom Harley

Amateur ecologist and horticulturalist and CEO of Kimberley Environmental Horticulture Inc. (Tom Harley) Kimberley Environmental Horticulture Incorporated Kimberley Environmental Horticulture (KEH) is a small group of committed individuals who promote the use of indigenous plants for the landscaping of parks and gardens. Rehabilitation of Kimberley coast, bushland and pastoral regions are also high on our agenda. This includes planting seedlings, weed control, damage from erosion or any other environmental matter that comes to our attention. We come from all walks of life, from Professionals and Trades oriented occupations, Pensioners and Students, Public Servants and the Unemployed. We have a community plant nursery where we trial many old and new species, with a view to incorporating these into our landscaping trials. Our labour force are mainly volunteers, but with considerable help from the 'work for the dole' program, Indigenous Community Development Employment Program (CDEP) groups and the Ministry of Justice, with their community work orders; in this way we manage to train many people in the horticultural skills needed for indigenous plant growing. We constantly undertake field trips that cover seed and plant collection in the Kimberley. Networking around the Kimberley region and the east Pilbara is a necessary part of promoting our activities. We consult on a range of Environmental and Landscaping matters that deal with our region. Our activities involve improving Broome's residential streetscapes by including 'waterwise' priciples in planting out nature strips. Sustainable environmental horticulture is practised by members of our group. We use existing vegetation as the backbone of any plantings, using these species to advantage when planning to develop tree forms or orchards. The Broome region is sensitive to development. Subsequently many weed species have become dominant in and around developed areas. The use and movement of heavy machinery is the biggest single cause of environmental degradation. We dont live in a 'Tropical Paradise' but on the edge of the Great Sandy Desert. The plants that survive best here, grow in well-drained pindan sand, and are found from the Dampier Peninsular southward to where average rainfall is below 600mm. When we use rainforest species, detail is important when planting, water catchment, sunlight and understorey species are all considered. The use of recycled 'grey' water is an advantage here as well as treated waste-water, although many local species do not fare well with nutrients from this source. We use waterwise planting methods which include harvesting asmuch rainwater as possible, with swales designed to hold up to 200 litres, to help recharge the local groundwater aquifer. There has been a serious decline in this aquifer over the last few years. With the fast expansion of the Broome peninsular, more and more land is being covered by concrete, iron and bitumen so that much less water is available to replenish the aquifer, allowing the salt content to become significantly higher. The small Broome Peninsular is on the south-western corner of the Dampier Peninsular (bound by Broome, Derby and Cape Leveque at the northern tip). Compaction by vehicles also inhibits water retention due to the content of our local pindan sand, hard as concrete in the dry, going to soft and sloppy mud after rain. None of us are botanists, inevitably we have got some names wrong, names changed, or have not gone to sub-species level. If you note a photo or description may be wrong, please e-mail to
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